What we are looking forward to in Terraform 0.13

Whether you are an everyday or occasional Terraform user, there is exciting news and you are in for a treat, as HashiCorp have released Beta2 preview on 17th June, with General Availability (GA) already pencilled in for 15th July (although it could be postponed for a couple of weeks, depending on what bugs show up during beta).

HashiCorp Terraform

Let’s have a quick look at what is in the upcoming 0.13 release and what to look forward to.

Upcoming flagship features

There are exciting new major and long waited improvements, that lots of people have been waiting for. Two of the most noticeable upcoming features are:

  • Module expansion with count and for_each: Similar to the arguments of the same name in resource and data blocks, these create multiple instances of a module from a single module block.
  • Module dependencies with depends_on: Modules can now use the depends_on argument to ensure that all module resource changes will be applied after any changes to the depends_on targets have been applied.

Let’s look at an example how we can use those new features in code. In this example I want to define two modules. The first module deploys multiple S3 buckets, based on variable bucket_names and use of count. Then another module will be used to spin up multiple Kubernetes clusters based on defined locals, and use a for_each loop to fetch locals keys/values. This way we can use data structures to deploy multiple resources with modules without duplicating our code. To demonstrate explicit module dependency, this uses the new depends_on parameter to ensure that all S3 buckets are deployed before you create the Kubernetes clusters that rely on them:

variable "bucket_names" {
  type    = type("string")
  default = ["prod", "qa", "dev"]
}

module "bucket_deploy" {
  source = "terraform-aws-modules/s3-bucket/aws"
  count  = length(var.bucket_names)

  region = var.region
  bucket = var.bucket_names[count.index]
}

locals {
  resources = {
    wg-prod = "prod-eks"
    wg-qa   = "qa-eks"
    wg-dev  = "dev-eks"
  }
}

module "my-cluster" {
  source   = "terraform-aws-modules/eks/aws"
  for_each = local.resources

  cluster_name    = each.value
  cluster_version = "1.16"
  subnets         = ["subnet-abcde012", "subnet-bcde012a", "subnet-fghi345a"]
  vpc_id          = "vpc-1234556abcdef"

  worker_groups = [
    {
	name	      = each.key
        instance_type = "m4.large"
        asg_max_size  = 3
    }
  ]

  depends_on = [module.bucket_deploy]
}

What’s important to note here is, in order to access modules resources (i.e. as outputs) created by using count or for_each, you need to use either tuple (you can also use splat syntax) or map syntax. Examples:

output "bucket-dev" {
  value = module.bucket_deploy[2].this_s3_bucket_id
}
output "k8s_cluster-prod" {
  value = module.my-cluster["wg-prod"].cluster_id
}

Another headline and very important improvement in the 0.13 release is provider source. This allows automatic installation of providers from outside the HashiCorp namespace. Following announcement about moving default providers to Terraform public Registry on 31st January, you can now provide a custom provider source in extended required_providers block. This means you can also host and publish providers to the Registry from your own public Git repositories.

Note: Only one required_providers block is allowed per module!

You do not need to declare the source if you are using one of HashiCorp’s providers. Terraform will continue to automatically download them from the appropriate source. Instead, this feature enables you to declare a custom provider source and it will automatically be downloaded as part of the terraform init step. This will simplify provider use and offer more streamlined access to partner and community providers, while also providing clear links to the ownership of all providers.

Let’s examine these changes in a Terraform configuration block using both the existing and new syntax:

terraform {
  required_providers {
    # This is the current syntax, which is still supported
    random = ">= 2.7.0"

    # This is the new syntax. "source" and "version" are both
    # optional, though in the future "source" will be required for
    # any provider that isn't maintained by HashiCorp.
    random = {
        source = "registry.terraform.io/hashicorp/random"
        version = "2.1.0"
    }
  }
}

Starting from Terraform v0.12.20, you can already use the new required_providers block syntax, although any source attribute will be ignored silently until you switch to v0.13.

Other enhancements

Coming as a stable feature in v0.13, you can now also set a custom validation rules for input variables. A new validation block type inside variable blocks allows module authors to define validation rules at the public interface into a module, so that errors in the calling configuration can be reported in the caller’s context rather than inside the implementation details of the module.

For example, you can use a validation check to fail early upon detecting an invalid AWS AMI image ID:

variable "image_id" {
  type        = string
  description = "The id of the machine image (AMI) to use for the server."

  validation {
    # regex(...) fails if it cannot find a match
    # can(...) returns false if the code it contains produces an error
    condition     = can(regex("^ami-", var.image_id))
    error_message = "Must be an AMI id, starting with \"ami-\"."
  }
}

This feature was introduced as experimental in a v0.12 minor release, but as of v0.13 it is now considered a stable feature and no longer requires explicitly opting in to the associated experiment. It required an explicit opt-in using the experiment keyword variable_validation which is not needed anymore:

terraform {
  experiments = [variable_validation]
}

Here are a few other interesting enhancements I would also like to mention:

  • Terraform Cloud authentication process has been streamlined and supports automatically saving credentials and logging in when using v0.13 CLI.
  • The Terraform CLI now supports TLS 1.3 and supports Ed25519 certificates when making outgoing connections to remote TLS servers. Both of these changes should be backwards compatible and only affect Terraform CLI itself, for example connecting to module registries or backends. Provider plugins have separate TLS implementations that will gain these features later on.
  • A new subcommand, terraform providers mirror, can automatically construct or update a local filesystem mirror directory containing the providers required for the current configuration.

Breaking changes

Before the end of this article, let’s have a quick look at the potential for breaking changes when planning your upgrade. For full details, please also check the official CHANGELOG, as these are just a sample of the full list, which may in any case change before the final GA release. Some of the more noticeable items are:

  • As part of new decentralized namespace for providers, Terraform now requires an explicit source specification for any provider that is not in the hashicorp namespace in the main public registry.
  • Locking was improved and changes to the TableStore schema now require a primary key named LockID of type String
  • The official macOS builds of Terraform CLI are no longer compatible with macOS 10.10 Yosemite; Terraform now requires at least macOS 10.11 El Capitan. Terraform 0.13 is the last major release that will support 10.11 El Capitan, so if you are upgrading your OS we recommend upgrading to macOS 10.12 Sierra or later.
  • The official FreeBSD builds of Terraform CLI are no longer compatible with FreeBSD 10.x, which has reached end-of-life. Terraform now requires FreeBSD 11.2 or later.

How to get started

If you want to give it a go before GA, you can already download and install the appropriate binary from releases.hashicorp.com! There is already a draft upgrade guide with some initial information about upgrades. In a similar way to the upgrade from v0.11 to v0.12, you can run terraform 0.13upgrade locally to perform check and rewrite code to v0.13. This should outline any inconsistencies before doing Terraform upgrade.

To improve upcoming release it is also important to give feedback. Please use the community discussion forum created thread, or report bugs via GitHub.


Terraform was initially released in July 2014 and has gone through several iterations, with many important features only arriving in the current 0.12 release. Even though it is going to celebrate 6 years in July, it has already become the most widely used open source IaC tool.

If you are interested in how to get started planning your upgrade, or start upgrading your environment, our experienced and certified team at The Scale Factory can help! We also offer training on Terraform as part of our support and learning subscription, along with much more hands-on training run through the Scale Factory Academy. Get in touch to let us know how we can help you.